空气污染可能使婴儿早产
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2011-10-09 05:13 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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A Californian-based study has looked in detail at air quality and the impact of traffic-related air pollution on premature1 birth. Published in BioMed Central's open access journal Environmental Health, results from this study show that traffic-related air pollution, especially polycyclic aromatic2 hydrocarbons3 (PAH多环芳烃), is associated with up to a 30% increase in premature births, and that seasonal4 changes and vicinity(临近,附近) to the coast affected5 concentration of toxic6 pollutants8 in the air. The study, based at the University of California, looked at 100,000 births, within a five mile radius9 of air quality monitoring stations. The study evaluated births spanning a 22 month period from June 2004, and used information provided by the California Department of Health about the births and the mothers, in addition to air pollution information from monitoring stations which measure concentrations of airborne toxic pollutants.

The researchers were able to analyse and compare exposures using three different information sources: government "criteria10 pollutant7" monitoring stations (including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone11, and fine particulate12 matter), a traffic pollution model (Land Use Regression), and data about toxic chemicals collected by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. Once integrated, these data provided a new level of detail about the concentrations and location of individual pollutants. All statistical13 models were adjusted for maternal14 age, race/ethnicity, education and parity15.

Some pollutants were area specific, relating to industry and urbanization. However, overall exposure to critical pollutants such as PAH resulted in up to a 30% increase in the risk of premature birth. Other toxic substances, such as benzene(苯) and fine particulate matter from diesel16(柴油) fumes17 were associated with a 10% increase, while ammonium nitrate fine particles were associated with a 21% increase in premature birth. Concentrations of these pollutants were higher in winter and lower in coastal18 areas, indicating that local weather patterns played an important part in the dispersal of pollutants.

Dr Beate Ritz said, "Air pollution is known to be associated with low birth weight and premature birth. Our results show that traffic-related PAH are of special concern as pollutants, and that PAH sources besides traffic contributed to premature birth. The increase in premature birth risk due to ammonium nitrate(硝酸铵) particles suggests secondary pollutants are also negatively impacting the health of unborn babies. To reduce the effects of these pollutants on public health, it is important that accurate modeling of local and regional spatial19 and temporal air pollution be incorporated into pollution policies."



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1 premature FPfxV     
adj.比预期时间早的;不成熟的,仓促的
参考例句:
  • It is yet premature to predict the possible outcome of the dialogue.预言这次对话可能有什么结果为时尚早。
  • The premature baby is doing well.那个早产的婴儿很健康。
2 aromatic lv9z8     
adj.芳香的,有香味的
参考例句:
  • It has an agreeable aromatic smell.它有一种好闻的香味。
  • It is light,fruity aromatic and a perfect choice for ending a meal.它是口感轻淡,圆润,芳香的,用于结束一顿饭完美的选择。
3 hydrocarbons e809b45a335ac8bfbaa26f5ce65d98e9     
n.碳氢化合物,烃( hydrocarbon的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Hydrocarbons (HC), like carbon monoxide, represent unburned and wasted fuel. 碳氢化合物(HC)像一氧化碳一样,为未燃尽的和被浪费掉的燃料。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
  • With this restricted frequency range it is not applicable to hydrocarbons. 这个较紧缩的频率范围不适用于烃类。 来自辞典例句
4 seasonal LZ1xE     
adj.季节的,季节性的
参考例句:
  • The town relies on the seasonal tourist industry for jobs.这个城镇依靠季节性旅游业提供就业机会。
  • The hors d'oeuvre is seasonal vegetables.餐前小吃是应时蔬菜。
5 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
6 toxic inSwc     
adj.有毒的,因中毒引起的
参考例句:
  • The factory had accidentally released a quantity of toxic waste into the sea.这家工厂意外泄漏大量有毒废物到海中。
  • There is a risk that toxic chemicals might be blasted into the atmosphere.爆炸后有毒化学物质可能会进入大气层。
7 pollutant N1Zzy     
n.污染物质,散布污染物质者
参考例句:
  • Coal itself is a heavy pollutant.煤本身就是一种严重的污染物。
  • Carbon dioxide may not be a typical air pollutant.二氧化碳可能不是一种典型的污染物。
8 pollutants 694861490fe64672170a0da250a277c7     
污染物质(尤指工业废物)( pollutant的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Pollutants are constantly being released into the atmosphere. 污染物质正在不断地被排放到大气中去。
  • The 1987 Amendments limit 301(g) discharges to a few well-studied nonconventional pollutants. 1987年的修正案把第301条(g)的普通排放限制施加在一些认真研究过的几种非常规污染物上。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
9 radius LTKxp     
n.半径,半径范围;有效航程,范围,界限
参考例句:
  • He has visited every shop within a radius of two miles.周围两英里以内的店铺他都去过。
  • We are measuring the radius of the circle.我们正在测量圆的半径。
10 criteria vafyC     
n.标准
参考例句:
  • The main criterion is value for money.主要的标准是钱要用得划算。
  • There are strict criteria for inclusion in the competition.参赛的标准很严格。
11 ozone omQzBE     
n.臭氧,新鲜空气
参考例句:
  • The ozone layer is a protective layer around the planet Earth.臭氧层是地球的保护层。
  • The capacity of ozone can adjust according of requirement.臭氧的产量可根据需要或调节。
12 particulate 4mMzPG     
adj.微小的;n.微粒,粒子
参考例句:
  • A special group was organized to dig up the particulate of the case.成立了一个专门小组来查明该案件的各个细节。
  • Lungs retain relatively insoluble particulate material.肺脏内留有不溶解的颗粒物质。
13 statistical bu3wa     
adj.统计的,统计学的
参考例句:
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用统计表显示价格的波动。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他们正在做具体的统计分析。
14 maternal 57Azi     
adj.母亲的,母亲般的,母系的,母方的
参考例句:
  • He is my maternal uncle.他是我舅舅。
  • The sight of the hopeless little boy aroused her maternal instincts.那个绝望的小男孩的模样唤起了她的母性。
15 parity 34mzS     
n.平价,等价,比价,对等
参考例句:
  • The two currencies have now reached parity.这两种货币现已达到同等价值。
  • Women have yet to achieve wage or occupational parity in many fields.女性在很多领域还没能争取到薪金、职位方面的平等。
16 diesel ql6zo     
n.柴油发动机,内燃机
参考例句:
  • We experimented with diesel engines to drive the pumps.我们试着用柴油机来带动水泵。
  • My tractor operates on diesel oil.我的那台拖拉机用柴油开动。
17 fumes lsYz3Q     
n.(强烈而刺激的)气味,气体
参考例句:
  • The health of our children is being endangered by exhaust fumes. 我们孩子们的健康正受到排放出的废气的损害。
  • Exhaust fumes are bad for your health. 废气对健康有害。
18 coastal WWiyh     
adj.海岸的,沿海的,沿岸的
参考例句:
  • The ocean waves are slowly eating away the coastal rocks.大海的波浪慢慢地侵蚀着岸边的岩石。
  • This country will fortify the coastal areas.该国将加强沿海地区的防御。
19 spatial gvcww     
adj.空间的,占据空间的
参考例句:
  • This part of brain judges the spatial relationship between objects.大脑的这部分判断物体间的空间关系。
  • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement.他们说时间是空间位移的感觉。
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