外生菌根真菌如何提高树木的耐旱能力
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2016-12-14 07:42 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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The mutualistic relationship between tree roots and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi1 has been shaping forest ecosystems2 since their inception3. ECM fungi are key players supporting the growth, health and stress tolerance4 of forest trees globally, such as oak, pine, spruce, birch and beech5, and help boost the productivity of bioenergy feedstock trees, including poplar and willow6. The most common ECM fungus7 is Cenococcum geophilum, found in subtropical through arctic zones and especially in extreme environments. It is also the only mycorrhizal fungus in the Dothideomycetes, a large class comprised of some 19,000 fungal species, many of them plant pathogens. To learn more about what ectomycorrhizal characteristics are dominant8 in Cenococcum geophilum, a team led by researchers at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) and the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, and including researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy Joint9 Genome Institute (DOE JGI), a DOE Office of Science User Facility, compared its genome with the genomes of close relatives Lepidopterella palustris and Glonium stellatum, neither of which are ECM fungi. The study was published online September 7 in Nature Communications. They found specific adaptations in the C. geophilum transcriptome ¬- the set of its messenger RNA molecules10 that reflects actual biochemical activity by the fungus ¬-that could help their hosts be more resistant11 to drought stress, a finding that could be useful in developing more plant feedstocks for bioenergy amidst the changing climate.
 
As part of a comparative genomic analysis done through the Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI) headed by study senior author Francis Martin of INRA, the DOE JGI sequenced C. geophilum and its close relative Lepidopterella palustris, and annotated12 both of these genomes and another close relative, Glonium stellatum. "We showed that the genome of C. geophilum, the only known mycorrhizal symbiont within the largest fungal class Dothideomycetes, acquired the same genomic adaptations to the mycorrhizal lifestyle over generations as the previously13 sequenced ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes," Martin said. "These include a strikingly reduced number of plant cell wall degrading enzymes14 (PCWDEs) and a large set of symbiosis15-induced lineage-specific genes16, including dozen of mycorrhiza-induced small secreted17 effector-like proteins (MiSSPs)."Unlike free-living saprotrophs, fungi that get their nutrients18 from decomposing19 organic matter in forest soils and so require PCWDEs, Cenoccocum has come to rely heavily on its hosts for its carbon nutrition. 
 
Noting that the root tips of C. geophilum are highly resistant to dessication, one of the team's key findings is that two of the three most highly induced C. geophilum genes in symbiosis code for water channels. "The regulation of these water channel genes is fine-tuned under drought conditions and they might therefore play a key role in drought adaptation of host plants," said first author Martina Peter of the Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL.
 
"C. geophilum population genomics should shed light on the mechanisms20 of host and environmental adaptation," the team wrote in their paper. "It should facilitate the identification of drought-adapted C. geophilum strains, which can be used to efficiently21 support their host trees threatened by the forecasted increase in drought periods in many parts of the world."


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1 fungi 6hRx6     
n.真菌,霉菌
参考例句:
  • Students practice to apply the study of genetics to multicellular plants and fungi.学生们练习把基因学应用到多细胞植物和真菌中。
  • The lawn was covered with fungi.草地上到处都是蘑菇。
2 ecosystems 94cb0e40a815bea1157ac8aab9a5380d     
n.生态系统( ecosystem的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • There are highly sensitive and delicately balanced ecosystems in the forest. 森林里有高度敏感、灵敏平衡的各种生态系统。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Madagascar's ecosystems range from rainforest to semi-desert. 马达加斯加生态系统类型多样,从雨林到半荒漠等不一而足。 来自辞典例句
3 inception bxYyz     
n.开端,开始,取得学位
参考例句:
  • The programme has been successful since its inception.这个方案自开始实施以来一直卓有成效。
  • Julia's worked for that company from its inception.自从那家公司开办以来,朱莉娅一直在那儿工作。
4 tolerance Lnswz     
n.宽容;容忍,忍受;耐药力;公差
参考例句:
  • Tolerance is one of his strengths.宽容是他的一个优点。
  • Human beings have limited tolerance of noise.人类对噪音的忍耐力有限。
5 beech uynzJF     
n.山毛榉;adj.山毛榉的
参考例句:
  • Autumn is the time to see the beech woods in all their glory.秋天是观赏山毛榉林的最佳时期。
  • Exasperated,he leaped the stream,and strode towards beech clump.他满腔恼怒,跳过小河,大踏步向毛榉林子走去。
6 willow bMFz6     
n.柳树
参考例句:
  • The river was sparsely lined with willow trees.河边疏疏落落有几棵柳树。
  • The willow's shadow falls on the lake.垂柳的影子倒映在湖面上。
7 fungus gzRyI     
n.真菌,真菌类植物
参考例句:
  • Mushrooms are a type of fungus.蘑菇是一种真菌。
  • This fungus can just be detected by the unaided eye.这种真菌只用肉眼就能检查出。
8 dominant usAxG     
adj.支配的,统治的;占优势的;显性的;n.主因,要素,主要的人(或物);显性基因
参考例句:
  • The British were formerly dominant in India.英国人从前统治印度。
  • She was a dominant figure in the French film industry.她在法国电影界是个举足轻重的人物。
9 joint m3lx4     
adj.联合的,共同的;n.关节,接合处;v.连接,贴合
参考例句:
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我们联名写了封信。
10 molecules 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49     
分子( molecule的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的结构可在电子显微镜下观察到。
  • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反应堆里,大分子裂变为小分子。
11 resistant 7Wvxh     
adj.(to)抵抗的,有抵抗力的
参考例句:
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
12 annotated c2a54daf2659390553c9665593260606     
v.注解,注释( annotate的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • Thematic maps should always be annotated with the source and date of the topical information. 各类专题地图,均应注明专题资料来源和日期。 来自辞典例句
  • And this is the version annotated by Umberto de Bologna. 并且这是有安博多-德-波罗格那注释的版本。 来自电影对白
13 previously bkzzzC     
adv.以前,先前(地)
参考例句:
  • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point.自行车胎在以前损坏过的地方又爆开了。
  • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously.让我岔开一会儿,解释原先发生了什么。
14 enzymes 7881ad8ce9c83424f7874e70266ed2d8     
n. 酶,酵素
参考例句:
  • It was said that washing powders containing enzymes remove stains more efficiently. 据说加酶洗衣粉除污更有效。
  • Among the enzymes which are particularly effective are pepsin, papain. 在酶当中特别有效的是胃朊酶、木瓜酶。
15 symbiosis eqVye     
n.共生(关系),共栖
参考例句:
  • They live in a symbiosis with governments that they are financing.他们与他们服务的政府互利共存。
  • The symbiosis between social values and political structure has produced extraordinary achievement.社会价值观念和政治结构的共生现象带来了非凡的成就。
16 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
17 secreted a4714b3ddc8420a17efed0cdc6ce32bb     
v.(尤指动物或植物器官)分泌( secrete的过去式和过去分词 );隐匿,隐藏
参考例句:
  • Insulin is secreted by the pancreas. 胰岛素是胰腺分泌的。
  • He secreted his winnings in a drawer. 他把赢来的钱藏在抽届里。 来自《简明英汉词典》
18 nutrients 6a1e1ed248a3ac49744c39cc962fb607     
n.(食品或化学品)营养物,营养品( nutrient的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • a lack of essential nutrients 基本营养的缺乏
  • Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. 营养素被吸收进血液。 来自《简明英汉词典》
19 decomposing f5b8fd5c51324ed24e58a14c223dc3da     
腐烂( decompose的现在分词 ); (使)分解; 分解(某物质、光线等)
参考例句:
  • The air was filled with the overpowering stench of decomposing vegetation. 空气中充满了令人难以忍受的腐烂植物的恶臭。
  • Heat was obtained from decomposing manures and hot air flues. 靠肥料分解和烟道为植物提供热量。
20 mechanisms d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8     
n.机械( mechanism的名词复数 );机械装置;[生物学] 机制;机械作用
参考例句:
  • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 这项研究将使人能够直接地了解分子的机理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解释这两台机械装置是如何工作的。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 efficiently ZuTzXQ     
adv.高效率地,有能力地
参考例句:
  • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
  • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
TAG标签: tree genomes fungi
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