为什么疫苗的接种部位通常是胳膊
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2021-09-07 04:45 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
你有没有想过,为什么疫苗的接种部位通常是胳膊而不是屁股或大腿?尽管撸起袖子确实要方便得多,但是疫苗接种部位的选择没有你想的那么简单。
 
Hundreds of millions have rolled up their sleeves for the COVID-19 vaccine1, but why haven't they rolled up their pants legs instead? Why do we get most shots in our arms? What's the science behind why we get most vaccines2 in our arm?
数以亿计的人已经接种了新冠疫苗,为什么打疫苗都是撸起袖子而不是卷起裤腿?为什么多数疫苗都是打在胳膊上?这背后有什么科学原理呢?
 
It's worth noting that most, but not all, vaccines are given in the muscle – this is known as an intramuscular injection.
值得注意的是,多数人(但不是所有人)接种疫苗都是打在胳膊上,号称“肌肉注射”。
 
Some vaccines, like the rotavirus vaccine, are given orally. Others are given just beneath the skin, or subcutaneously – think of the measles3, mumps4, and rubella vaccine. However, many others are given in the muscle.
有些疫苗是口服的,比如轮状病毒疫苗。其他一些疫苗是皮下注射的,比如麻疹、腮腺炎和风疹疫苗。但是,许多其他疫苗都是肌肉注射的。
 
But why is the muscle so important, and does location matter?
那么,为什么肌肉注射占比这么大,注射的肌肉部位是否有讲究?
 
肌肉含有免疫细胞
 
Muscles make an excellent vaccine administration site because muscle tissue contains important immune cells. These immune cells recognize the antigen, a tiny piece of a virus or bacteria introduced by the vaccine that stimulates5 an immune response.
肌肉是绝佳的疫苗注射部位,因为肌肉组织含有重要的免疫细胞。这些免疫细胞能识别疫苗中引发免疫反应的抗原。
 
In the case of the COVID-19 vaccine, the immune cells in the muscle tissue pick up these antigens and present them to the lymph nodes.
以新冠疫苗为例,肌肉组织中的免疫细胞会识别这些抗原,然后让抗原进入淋巴结。
 
Injecting the vaccine into muscle tissue keeps the vaccine localized, allowing immune cells to sound the alarm to other immune cells and get to work.
将疫苗注射进肌肉组织可以让疫苗先停留在局部,肌肉部位的免疫细胞会向其他免疫细胞发出警报,通知它们开始工作。
 
Once a vaccine is recognized by the immune cells in the muscle, these cells carry the antigen to lymph vessels6, which transport the antigen-carrying immune cells into the lymph nodes.
一旦疫苗被肌肉内的免疫细胞识别,这些细胞会携带抗原进入淋巴管,然后淋巴管会将这些带有抗原的免疫细胞输送给淋巴结。
 
Lymph nodes, key components7 of our immune system, contain more immune cells that recognize the antigens in vaccines and start the immune process of creating antibodies.
作为人体免疫系统的关键组成部分,淋巴结所含的免疫细胞更多,这些免疫细胞能够识别疫苗中的抗原,从而启动制造抗体的免疫程序。
 
Clusters of lymph nodes are located in areas close to vaccine administration sites. For instance, many vaccines are injected in the deltoid because it is close to lymph nodes located just under the armpit. When vaccines are given in the thigh8, the lymph vessels don't have far to travel to reach the cluster of lymph nodes in the groin.
成簇状分布的淋巴结就在疫苗注射部位附近。许多疫苗都打在三角肌处,因为三角肌和腋下的淋巴结距离很近。如果疫苗是打在大腿上,距离腹股沟淋巴结聚集处也不远。
 
肌肉注射可以让疫苗反应停留在局部
 
Muscle tissue also tends to keep vaccine reactions localized. Injecting a vaccine into the deltoid muscle may result in local inflammation or soreness at the injection site.
此外,肌肉注射往往会让疫苗反应停留在局部。将疫苗注射进三角肌可能会引发注射处的局部红肿或酸痛。
 
If certain vaccines are injected into fat tissue, the chance of irritation9 and inflammation reaction increases because fat tissue has poor blood supply, leading to poor absorption of some vaccine components.
如果疫苗被打在脂肪组织上,那么出现刺激和红肿反应的几率会增大,因为脂肪组织的血液供应不足,从而导致对某些疫苗成分的吸收不良。
 
Vaccines that include the use of adjuvants – or components that enhance the immune response to the antigen – must be given in a muscle to avoid widespread irritation and inflammation.
含有佐剂的疫苗必须打在肌肉上,以避免大范围的刺激和红肿反应。佐剂的使用可以提高对抗原的免疫反应。
 
Yet another deciding factor in vaccine administration location is the size of the muscle.
决定疫苗注射部位的另一个因素是肌肉的大小。
 
Adults and children ages three and older tend to receive vaccines in their upper arm in the deltoid. Younger children receive their vaccines mid-thigh because their arm muscles are smaller and less developed.
成年人和三岁以上儿童接种疫苗的部位通常是胳膊上方的三角肌。更年幼的小孩是在大腿中部接种疫苗,因为他们的胳膊肌肉组织较小、尚未发育完全。
 
Another consideration during vaccine administration is convenience and patient acceptability. Can you imagine taking down your pants at a mass vaccination10 clinic? Rolling up your sleeve is way easier and more preferred.
疫苗注射部位的另一个考量因素是便利度和患者的接受度。你能想象在人群聚集的疫苗接种诊室内脱下裤子的画面吗?撸起袖子要方便得多,也更易被人们接受。
 
All things considered, when it comes to the flu shot and the COVID-19 vaccine, for most adults and kids, the arm is the preferred vaccination route.
综上所述,大多数成年人和孩子在接种新冠疫苗和流感疫苗时,胳膊是最佳的疫苗注射部位。


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 vaccine Ki1wv     
n.牛痘苗,疫苗;adj.牛痘的,疫苗的
参考例句:
  • The polio vaccine has saved millions of lives.脊髓灰质炎疫苗挽救了数以百万计的生命。
  • She takes a vaccine against influenza every fall.她每年秋季接种流感疫苗。
2 vaccines c9bb57973a82c1e95c7cd0f4988a1ded     
疫苗,痘苗( vaccine的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • His team are at the forefront of scientific research into vaccines. 他的小组处于疫苗科研的最前沿。
  • The vaccines were kept cool in refrigerators. 疫苗放在冰箱中冷藏。
3 measles Bw8y9     
n.麻疹,风疹,包虫病,痧子
参考例句:
  • The doctor is quite definite about Tom having measles.医生十分肯定汤姆得了麻疹。
  • The doctor told her to watch out for symptoms of measles.医生叫她注意麻疹出现的症状。
4 mumps 6n4zbS     
n.腮腺炎
参考例句:
  • Sarah got mumps from her brother.萨拉的弟弟患腮腺炎,传染给她了。
  • I was told not go near Charles. He is sickening for mumps.别人告诉我不要走近查尔斯, 他染上了流行性腮腺炎。
5 stimulates 7384b1562fa5973e17b0984305c09f3e     
v.刺激( stimulate的第三人称单数 );激励;使兴奋;起兴奋作用,起刺激作用,起促进作用
参考例句:
  • Exercise stimulates the body. 运动促进身体健康。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Alcohol stimulates the action of the heart. 酒刺激心脏的活动。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
6 vessels fc9307c2593b522954eadb3ee6c57480     
n.血管( vessel的名词复数 );船;容器;(具有特殊品质或接受特殊品质的)人
参考例句:
  • The river is navigable by vessels of up to 90 tons. 90 吨以下的船只可以从这条河通过。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • All modern vessels of any size are fitted with radar installations. 所有现代化船只都有雷达装置。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
7 components 4725dcf446a342f1473a8228e42dfa48     
(机器、设备等的)构成要素,零件,成分; 成分( component的名词复数 ); [物理化学]组分; [数学]分量; (混合物的)组成部分
参考例句:
  • the components of a machine 机器部件
  • Our chemistry teacher often reduces a compound to its components in lab. 在实验室中化学老师常把化合物分解为各种成分。
8 thigh RItzO     
n.大腿;股骨
参考例句:
  • He is suffering from a strained thigh muscle.他的大腿肌肉拉伤了,疼得很。
  • The thigh bone is connected to the hip bone.股骨连着髋骨。
9 irritation la9zf     
n.激怒,恼怒,生气
参考例句:
  • He could not hide his irritation that he had not been invited.他无法掩饰因未被邀请而生的气恼。
  • Barbicane said nothing,but his silence covered serious irritation.巴比康什么也不说,但是他的沉默里潜伏着阴郁的怒火。
10 vaccination bKGzM     
n.接种疫苗,种痘
参考例句:
  • Vaccination is a preventive against smallpox.种痘是预防天花的方法。
  • Doctors suggest getting a tetanus vaccination every ten years.医生建议每十年注射一次破伤风疫苗。
TAG标签: immune vaccine muscle
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