文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-03-11 01:25 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

A study on the past extinction1 of large mammals in India by the Wildlife Conservation Society, Duke University, and other groups has found that country's protected area system and human cultural tolerance2 for some species are key to conserving3(保存,保持) the subcontinent(次大陆)'s tigers, elephants, and other large mammals. According to the study, the long-term survival of many large species in the midst of rapid economic growth will require improving existing protected areas and establishing new protected areas and corridors(廊道,走廊).

The paper—recently published in the Proceedings4 of the Royal Society—is authored by: Krithi K. Karanth of Duke & Columbia University; James D. Nichols and James E. Hines of the USGS Patuxent Research Center; K. Ullas Karanth of the Wildlife Conservation Society; and Norman L. Christensen of Duke University.

"This study provides us with a roadmap for next steps for conservation in India," said Colin Poole, executive director of the Wildlife Conservation Society's Asia Program. "As India develops into a world economic power, it is critical that conservation planning is part of that expansion."

"India's rich diversity(多样性,差异) of wildlife is one of the country's great assets(财产,有利条件)," said Krithi K. Karanth, the study's lead author. "Our work highlights the perilous5(危险的,冒险的) state of wildlife in India and conservation priorities must help conserve6 the nation's natural heritage."

The researchers created models to estimate extinction probability for 25 large mammal species, determining current species distributions along with more than 30,000 historical records from natural history, taxidermy(标本录制术) and museum records dating back 200 years. The models were used to gauge7(估计,测量) how factors such as protected areas, forest cover, elevation8, and human demographics(人口统计资料), and cultural attitudes impact extinction predictions.

The results of the analysis found that all 25 species would experience some level of local extinction due to a variety of factors such as habitat loss and human population growth and development. The study results confirmed that species do benefit from protected areas, especially large carnivores(食肉动物) such as tigers and other forest-dwelling(住处,寓所) animals such as Sambar(水鹿,黒鹿) deer. The species with the highest probable rates of extinction were large-bodied animals such as the wild buffalo9 (66 percent), habitat specialists such as the goat-like Nilgiri tahr (71 percent) and the swamp(沼泽,湿地) deer (90 percent), and rare species had higher probabilities of extinction such as the Asiatic lions of Gir Forest (96 percent).

Factors such as human densities10 did increase the probability of extinction for many species with the exception of adaptable11 animals such as wild pigs, jackals(豺狼), and blackbuck(印度羚).

The authors point out that many species, including ones that exist outside of protected areas (mouse deer, four-horned antelope羚羊, sloth13 bear印度懒熊, wolf and others) and species that now occupy a tiny remnant(剩余) of former ranges (gaur印度野牛, elephant, rhino犀牛, Asiatic lion, tigers, etc.) will require new protected areas to ensure their persistence15.

"Our results highlight the need for an expansion of conservation planning to complement16 land use decisions and development," added Karanth.


1 extinction sPwzP     
  • The plant is now in danger of extinction.这种植物现在有绝种的危险。
  • The island's way of life is doomed to extinction.这个岛上的生活方式注定要消失。
2 tolerance Lnswz     
  • Tolerance is one of his strengths.宽容是他的一个优点。
  • Human beings have limited tolerance of noise.人类对噪音的忍耐力有限。
3 conserving b57084daff81d3ab06526e08a5a6ecc3     
v.保护,保藏,保存( conserve的现在分词 )
  • Contour planning with or without terracing is effective in conserving both soil and moisture. 顺等高线栽植,无论做或不做梯田对于保持水土都能有效。 来自辞典例句
  • Economic savings, consistent with a conserving society and the public philosophy. 经济节约,符合创建节约型社会的公共理念。 来自互联网
4 proceedings Wk2zvX     
  • He was released on bail pending committal proceedings. 他交保获释正在候审。
  • to initiate legal proceedings against sb 对某人提起诉讼
5 perilous E3xz6     
  • The journey through the jungle was perilous.穿过丛林的旅行充满了危险。
  • We have been carried in safety through a perilous crisis.历经一连串危机,我们如今已安然无恙。
6 conserve vYRyP     
  • He writes on both sides of the sheet to conserve paper.他在纸张的两面都写字以节省用纸。
  • Conserve your energy,you'll need it!保存你的精力,你会用得着的!
7 gauge 2gMxz     
  • Can you gauge what her reaction is likely to be?你能揣测她的反应可能是什么吗?
  • It's difficult to gauge one's character.要判断一个人的品格是很困难的。
8 elevation bqsxH     
  • The house is at an elevation of 2,000 metres.那幢房子位于海拔两千米的高处。
  • His elevation to the position of General Manager was announced yesterday.昨天宣布他晋升总经理职位。
9 buffalo 1Sby4     
  • Asian buffalo isn't as wild as that of America's. 亚洲水牛比美洲水牛温顺些。
  • The boots are made of buffalo hide. 这双靴子是由水牛皮制成的。
10 densities eca5c1ea104bef3058e858fe084fb6d0     
密集( density的名词复数 ); 稠密; 密度(固体、液体或气体单位体积的质量); 密度(磁盘存贮数据的可用空间)
  • The range of densities of interest is about 3.5. 有用的密度范围为3.5左右。
  • Densities presumably can be probed by radar. 利用雷达也许还能探测出气体的密度。
11 adaptable vJDyI     
  • He is an adaptable man and will soon learn the new work.他是个适应性很强的人,很快就将学会这种工作。
  • The soil is adaptable to the growth of peanuts.这土壤适宜于花生的生长。
12 antelope fwKzN     
  • Choosing the antelope shows that China wants a Green Olympics.选择藏羚羊表示中国需要绿色奥运。
  • The tiger was dragging the antelope across the field.老虎拖着羚羊穿过原野。
13 sloth 4ELzP     
  • Absence of competition makes for sloth.没有竞争会导致懒惰。
  • The sloth spends most of its time hanging upside down from the branches.大部分时间里树懒都是倒挂在树枝上。
14 rhino xjmztD     
n.犀牛,钱, 现金
  • The rhino charged headlong towards us.犀牛急速地向我们冲来。
  • They have driven the rhino to the edge of extinction.他们已经令犀牛濒临灭绝。
15 persistence hSLzh     
  • The persistence of a cough in his daughter puzzled him.他女儿持续的咳嗽把他难住了。
  • He achieved success through dogged persistence.他靠着坚持不懈取得了成功。
16 complement ZbTyZ     
  • The two suggestions complement each other.这两条建议相互补充。
  • They oppose each other also complement each other.它们相辅相成。