雌性切叶蚊可储存雄性精子并停止其相互竞争
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-03-19 06:19 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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Leafcutter ant queens can live for twenty years, fertilizing1 millions of eggs with sperm2 stored after a single day of sexual activity. Danish researchers who have studied ants at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama since 1992 discovered that in both ant and bee species in which queens have multiple mates, a male's seminal3 fluid(精液) favors the survival of its own sperm over the other males' sperm. However, once sperm has been stored, leafcutter ant queens neutralize4(中和,抵消) male-male sperm competition with glandular5(腺的) secretions6(分泌物) in their sperm-storage organ.

"Two things appear to be going on here," explains Jacobus Boomsma, professor at the University of Copenhagen and Research Associate at STRI. "Right after mating there is competition between sperm from different males. Sperm is expendable(消耗品) . Later, sperm becomes very precious to the female who will continue to use it for many years to fertilize7 her own eggs, producing the millions of workers it takes to maintain her colony."

With post-doctoral researchers Susanne den8 Boer in Copenhagen and Boris Baer at the University of Western Australia, professor Boomsma studied sperm competition in sister species of ants and bees that mate singly—each queen with just one male—or multiply—with several males.

Their results, published this week in the prestigious9(有名望的) journal, Science, show that the ability of a male's seminal fluid to harm the sperm of other males only occurs in species that mate multiply, and that their own seminal fluid does not protect sperm against these antagonistic10(敌对的,反对的) effects.

"Females belonging to many species—from vertebrates(脊椎动物) to insects-- have multiple male partners. Seminal products evolve rapidly, probably in response to the intense male-male competition that continues even after courtship(求爱,求婚) and mating have taken place," said William Eberhard, Smithsonian staff scientist. "This study continues the STRI tradition of looking at post-copulatory(交配的) selection in a very biodiverse range of organisms, following in the footsteps of people like Bob Silberglied, who asked why butterflies and moths11(飞蛾) have two kinds of sperm in the 1970's."

Similar sperm competition systems appear to have evolved independently in ants and in bees. Researchers now aim to discover how genes12 that control sperm recognition in bees and ants may differ, thus continuing to elucidate13(说明,阐明) the details of a process key to reproduction and evolution.



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1 fertilizing 79a37a7878a3e9b841687c9b9748dd60     
v.施肥( fertilize的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • Sometimes the preliminary step must be taken of reducing weed population before fertilizing. 有时候,在施肥之前,必须采取减少杂草密度的预备性步骤。 来自辞典例句
  • The self fertilizing garden can also be planted in raised beds. 自我施肥的菜园也可以在苗圃床中种植。 来自互联网
2 sperm jFOzO     
n.精子,精液
参考例句:
  • Only one sperm fertilises an egg.只有一个精子使卵子受精。
  • In human reproduction,one female egg is usually fertilized by one sperm.在人体生殖过程中,一个精子使一个卵子受精。
3 seminal Qzrwo     
adj.影响深远的;种子的
参考例句:
  • The reforms have been a seminal event in the history of the NHS.这些改革已成为英国国民保健制度史上影响深远的一件大事。
  • The emperor's importance as a seminal figure of history won't be diminished.做为一个开创性历史人物的重要性是不会减弱的。
4 neutralize g5hzm     
v.使失效、抵消,使中和
参考例句:
  • Nothing could neutralize its good effects.没有什么能抵消它所产生的好影响。
  • Acids neutralize alkalis and vice versa.酸能使碱中和碱,亦能使酸中和。
5 glandular wgExR     
adj.腺体的
参考例句:
  • Terry has been laid low with glandular fever for nearly a month now.特里由于功能性高烧已卧床近一个月了。
  • A malignant tumor originating in glandular tissue.腺癌起源于腺性组织的恶性肿瘤。
6 secretions dfdf2c8f9fa34d69cdb57b5834c6dbea     
n.分泌(物)( secretion的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Lysozyme is an enzyme found in egg white, tears, and other secretions. 溶菌酶是存在于卵白、泪和其他分泌物中的一种酶。 来自辞典例句
  • Chest percussion and vibration are used with postural drainage to help dislodge secretions. 在做体位引流时要敲击和振动胸部帮助分泌物松动排出。 来自辞典例句
7 fertilize hk5x8     
v.使受精,施肥于,使肥沃
参考例句:
  • Fertilizer is a substance put on land to fertilize it.肥料是施在地里使之肥沃的物质。
  • Reading will fertilize his vocabulary.阅读会丰富他的词汇。
8 den 5w9xk     
n.兽穴;秘密地方;安静的小房间,私室
参考例句:
  • There is a big fox den on the back hill.后山有一个很大的狐狸窝。
  • The only way to catch tiger cubs is to go into tiger's den.不入虎穴焉得虎子。
9 prestigious nQ2xn     
adj.有威望的,有声望的,受尊敬的
参考例句:
  • The young man graduated from a prestigious university.这个年轻人毕业于一所名牌大学。
  • You may even join a prestigious magazine as a contributing editor.甚至可能会加入一个知名杂志做编辑。
10 antagonistic pMPyn     
adj.敌对的
参考例句:
  • He is always antagonistic towards new ideas.他对新思想总是持反对态度。
  • They merely stirred in a nervous and wholly antagonistic way.他们只是神经质地,带着完全敌对情绪地骚动了一下。
11 moths de674306a310c87ab410232ea1555cbb     
n.蛾( moth的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The moths have eaten holes in my wool coat. 蛀虫将我的羊毛衫蛀蚀了几个小洞。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The moths tapped and blurred at the window screen. 飞蛾在窗帘上跳来跳去,弄上了许多污点。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
12 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
13 elucidate GjSzd     
v.阐明,说明
参考例句:
  • The note help to elucidate the most difficult parts of the text.这些注释有助于弄清文中最难懂的部分。
  • This guide will elucidate these differences and how to exploit them.这篇指导将会阐述这些不同点以及如何正确利用它们。
TAG标签: species sperm male insects
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