空气污染加剧了干旱、洪涝灾害的发生
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2011-11-15 01:55 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)

Increases in air pollution and other particulate1 matter in the atmosphere can strongly affect cloud development in ways that reduce precipitation(沉淀,冰雹) in dry regions or seasons, while increasing rain, snowfall and the intensity2 of severe storms in wet regions or seasons, says a new study by a University of Maryland-led team of researchers. The research provides the first clear evidence of how aerosols3(悬浮颗粒) -- soot4, dust and other small particles in the atmosphere -- can affect weather and climate; and the findings have important implications for the availability, management and use of water resources in regions across the United States and around the world, say the researchers and other scientists.

"Using a 10-year dataset of extensive atmosphere measurements from the U.S. Southern Great Plains research facility in Oklahoma [run by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric5 Radiation Measurement program] -- we have uncovered, for the first time, the long-term, net impact of aerosols on cloud height and thickness, and the resultant changes in precipitation frequency and intensity," says Zhanqing Li, a professor of atmospheric and oceanic science at Maryland and lead author of the study.

The study found that under very dirty conditions, the mean cloud height of deep convective clouds(对流云) is more than twice the mean height under crystal clean air conditions. "The probability of heavy rain is virtually doubled from clean to dirty conditions, while the chance of light rain is reduced by 50 percent," says Maryland's Li, who is also affiliated6 with Beijing Normal University.

The scientists obtained additional support for these findings with matching results obtained using a cloud-resolving computer model. The study by Li and co-authors Feng Niu and Yanni Ding, also of the University of Maryland; Jiwen Fan of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Yangang Liu of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Daniel Rosenfeld of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, is published in the Nov. 13 issue of Nature Geoscience.

"These new findings of long-term impacts, which we made using regional ground measurements, also are consistent with the findings we obtained from an analysis of NASA's global satellite products in a separate study. Together, they attest7(证明) to the needs of tackling both climate and environmental changes that matter so much to our daily life," says Li.

"Our findings have significant policy implications for sustainable development and water resources, especially for those developing regions susceptible8 to extreme events such as drought and flood. Increases in manufacturing, building of power plants and other industrial developments, together with urbanization, are often accompanied with increases in pollution whose adverse9 impacts on weather and climate, as revealed in this study, can undercut(廉价出售) economic gains," he stresses.

Tony Busalacchi, chair of the Joint10 Scientific Committee, World Climate Research Program notes the significance of the new findings. "Understanding interactions across clouds, aerosols, and precipitation is one of the grand challenges for climate research in the decade ahead, as identified in a recent major world climate conference. Findings of this study represent a significant advance in our understanding of such processes with significant implications for both climate science and sustainable development," says Busalacchi, who also is professor and director of the University of Maryland Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center.



点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 particulate 4mMzPG     
adj.微小的;n.微粒,粒子
参考例句:
  • A special group was organized to dig up the particulate of the case.成立了一个专门小组来查明该案件的各个细节。
  • Lungs retain relatively insoluble particulate material.肺脏内留有不溶解的颗粒物质。
2 intensity 45Ixd     
n.强烈,剧烈;强度;烈度
参考例句:
  • I didn't realize the intensity of people's feelings on this issue.我没有意识到这一问题能引起群情激奋。
  • The strike is growing in intensity.罢工日益加剧。
3 aerosols a9c7ea700e36caa4c48a8c693762372f     
n.气溶胶( aerosol的名词复数 );喷雾剂;(气体中的)浮粒;喷雾器
参考例句:
  • Aerosols are present throughout the atmosphere. 气溶胶存在于整个大气层。 来自辞典例句
  • Deodorants are available as aerosols or roll-ons. 除臭剂有喷雾装或滚抹装。 来自辞典例句
4 soot ehryH     
n.煤烟,烟尘;vt.熏以煤烟
参考例句:
  • Soot is the product of the imperfect combustion of fuel.煤烟是燃料不完全燃烧的产物。
  • The chimney was choked with soot.烟囱被煤灰堵塞了。
5 atmospheric 6eayR     
adj.大气的,空气的;大气层的;大气所引起的
参考例句:
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
6 affiliated 78057fb733c9c93ffbdc5f0ed15ef458     
adj. 附属的, 有关连的
参考例句:
  • The hospital is affiliated with the local university. 这家医院附属于当地大学。
  • All affiliated members can vote. 所有隶属成员都有投票权。
7 attest HO3yC     
vt.证明,证实;表明
参考例句:
  • I can attest to the absolute truth of his statement. 我可以证实他的话是千真万确的。
  • These ruins sufficiently attest the former grandeur of the place. 这些遗迹充分证明此处昔日的宏伟。
8 susceptible 4rrw7     
adj.过敏的,敏感的;易动感情的,易受感动的
参考例句:
  • Children are more susceptible than adults.孩子比成人易受感动。
  • We are all susceptible to advertising.我们都易受广告的影响。
9 adverse 5xBzs     
adj.不利的;有害的;敌对的,不友好的
参考例句:
  • He is adverse to going abroad.他反对出国。
  • The improper use of medicine could lead to severe adverse reactions.用药不当会产生严重的不良反应。
10 joint m3lx4     
adj.联合的,共同的;n.关节,接合处;v.连接,贴合
参考例句:
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我们联名写了封信。
TAG标签: climate air pollution
发表评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:点击我更换图片