文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2013-08-29 07:31 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
How tiny fish larvae1 travel away from the reef, then know how to navigate2 their way back home is a scientific mystery. A new study led by Dr. Claire Paris, Professor at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine3 & Atmospheric4 Science conducted at One Tree Island in the Great Barrier Reef is helping5 to shed some light on the topic. Working with colleagues from UM, Boston University, Laboratoire Oceanographique de Villefranche, James Cook University and Oldenburg University, the team has established that reef fish larvae can smell the presence of coral reefs from as far as several kilometers offshore6, and use this odor(气味) to find home.
Members of the research team had established earlier that reef fish larvae could discriminate7 between the odors of different nearby reefs while preferring the odor of the reef where they were settling (Gerlach et al. Proceedings8 from the National Academy of Science, 2007). However, these experiments were done under controlled conditions in a shore-based laboratory.
"In this collaborative study we expanded our work to demonstrate that the odor responses can also be detected under the field conditions," said Dr. Jelle Atema, Boston University Professor of Biology. "This establishes for the first time that reef fish larvae discriminate odor in situ."
The current study, which appears in the August 28 edition of PLOS ONE, was designed to test the response of larvae in a natural open ocean setting using an outflow plume9 from One Tree Island. Using light traps, the team collected settlement-stage larvae from cardinalfish [Apogonidae] and damselfish [Pomacentridae].
In deployments to the north and south of One Tree Island, single larvae were observed in the central chamber10 of an o-DISC (ocean Drifting In Situ Chamber,) a unique device created in Paris' laboratory that is composed of circular behavioral arena11 transparent12 to light, sound and small scale turbulence13. The light-weight piece of equipment was set adrift in the water column and the swimming activity and bearing of the larva was recorded using an underwater motion sensing and imaging system. The o-DISC tracked larval movement and orientation14 using odor cues from the environment.
Species from the two reef-fish families reacted very differently to the olfactory15 stimulus16. Cardinalfish tended to speed up their movement in response to odors in the plume, but their orientation toward the reef was not apparent. They zigzag17 within the o-DISC chamber, which led the researchers to believe they were using infotaxis, or sporadic18 odor cues, in their attempt to orient. In contrast, damselfish slowed their swim speeds, and there was orientation along the shoreline and toward the west. They seemed to be moving with a compass, triggered by the odor stimulus.
"Ocean currents do not appear to influence the orientation of fish larvae," said Paris. "They do not provide a frame of reference since larvae are transported within. Instead, we find that fish larvae navigate by detecting turbulent odor signals transported kilometers away from the reef. Subsequently they switch to a directional cue, perhaps magnetic or acoustic19, which allows them to find the reef."
Other fish, including mature sharks and freshwater juvenile20 salmon21 navigate using olfactory signals, but this is the first study to report that fish larvae use similar odor cues.
"The implications of this study are tremendous, because we have to take into account the impact that human activities might have on the smells contained within the ocean. If these larvae cannot get their 'wake up' cues to orient back toward the reef they may stay out at sea and become easy prey22 before finding home," said Paris.


1 larvae w2CxP     
  • Larvae are parasitic on sheep.幼虫寄生在绵羊的身上。
  • The larvae prey upon small aphids.这种幼虫以小蚜虫为食。
2 navigate 4Gyxu     
  • He was the first man to navigate the Atlantic by air.他是第一个飞越大西洋的人。
  • Such boats can navigate on the Nile.这种船可以在尼罗河上航行。
3 marine 77Izo     
  • Marine creatures are those which live in the sea. 海洋生物是生存在海里的生物。
  • When the war broke out,he volunteered for the Marine Corps.战争爆发时,他自愿参加了海军陆战队。
4 atmospheric 6eayR     
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
5 helping 2rGzDc     
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
6 offshore FIux8     
  • A big program of oil exploration has begun offshore.一个大规模的石油勘探计划正在近海展开。
  • A gentle current carried them slowly offshore.和缓的潮流慢慢地把他们带离了海岸。
7 discriminate NuhxX     
  • You must learn to discriminate between facts and opinions.你必须学会把事实和看法区分出来。
  • They can discriminate hundreds of colours.他们能分辨上百种颜色。
8 proceedings Wk2zvX     
  • He was released on bail pending committal proceedings. 他交保获释正在候审。
  • to initiate legal proceedings against sb 对某人提起诉讼
9 plume H2SzM     
  • Her hat was adorned with a plume.她帽子上饰着羽毛。
  • He does not plume himself on these achievements.他并不因这些成就而自夸。
10 chamber wnky9     
  • For many,the dentist's surgery remains a torture chamber.对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
  • The chamber was ablaze with light.会议厅里灯火辉煌。
11 arena Yv4zd     
  • She entered the political arena at the age of 25. 她25岁进入政界。
  • He had not an adequate arena for the exercise of his talents.他没有充分发挥其才能的场所。
12 transparent Smhwx     
  • The water is so transparent that we can see the fishes swimming.水清澈透明,可以看到鱼儿游来游去。
  • The window glass is transparent.窗玻璃是透明的。
13 turbulence 8m9wZ     
  • The turbulence caused the plane to turn over.空气的激流导致飞机翻转。
  • The world advances amidst turbulence.世界在动荡中前进。
14 orientation IJ4xo     
  • Children need some orientation when they go to school.小孩子上学时需要适应。
  • The traveller found his orientation with the aid of a good map.旅行者借助一幅好地图得知自己的方向。
15 olfactory Z5EzW     
  • He is to develop a sensor to substitute for the olfactory abilities of dogs.克罗克将研制一种传感器用以代替狗的嗅觉功能。
  • Based on these findings, Keller suspects that each person has an olfactory blind spot.根据这些发现,凯勒推断,每个人都有一个嗅觉盲区。
16 stimulus 3huyO     
  • Regard each failure as a stimulus to further efforts.把每次失利看成对进一步努力的激励。
  • Light is a stimulus to growth in plants.光是促进植物生长的一个因素。
17 zigzag Hf6wW     
  • The lightning made a zigzag in the sky.闪电在天空划出一道Z字形。
  • The path runs zigzag up the hill.小径向山顶蜿蜒盘旋。
18 sporadic PT0zT     
adj.偶尔发生的 [反]regular;分散的
  • The sound of sporadic shooting could still be heard.仍能听见零星的枪声。
  • You know this better than I.I received only sporadic news about it.你们比我更清楚,而我听到的只是零星消息。
19 acoustic KJ7y8     
  • The hall has a fine acoustic.这个大厅的传音效果很好。
  • Animals use a whole rang of acoustic, visual,and chemical signals in their systems of communication.动物利用各种各样的听觉、视觉和化学信号来进行交流。
20 juvenile OkEy2     
  • For a grown man he acted in a very juvenile manner.身为成年人,他的行为举止显得十分幼稚。
  • Juvenile crime is increasing at a terrifying rate.青少年犯罪正在以惊人的速度增长。
21 salmon pClzB     
  • We saw a salmon jumping in the waterfall there.我们看见一条大马哈鱼在那边瀑布中跳跃。
  • Do you have any fresh salmon in at the moment?现在有新鲜大马哈鱼卖吗?
22 prey g1czH     
  • Stronger animals prey on weaker ones.弱肉强食。
  • The lion was hunting for its prey.狮子在寻找猎物。
TAG标签: home fish reef