出生年代预示对特定流感的抵抗能力
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2016-11-27 07:42 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
When flu strikes, why are some family members reduced to shivering wrecks1 under their duvets, while others get off with little more than a snuffle?
 
当流感来袭时,为什么有些人蜷缩在羽绒被下瑟瑟发抖,而有的人最多就是有点鼻塞呢?
 
Scientists now have an answer, showing that the generation you belong to - and even the year of your birth - predicts how vulnerable you will be to a given strain of seasonal2 virus.
 
The flu virus a person first encounters as a child, they found, leaves a permanent "imprint3" on the immune system, giving them robust4 protection against similar strains and much weaker protection against less closely related varieties of the illness.
 
Michael Worobey, head Ecology and Evolutionary5 Biology at the University of Arizona and a senior author of the study, said: "It's not the age, it's the birth year that matters."
 
In future, seasonal vaccines6 could be targeted at people of particular ages who are most likely to benefit, and in pandemics when medications are scarce, vulnerable age ranges could be prioritised for protective measures.
 
"It's breaking new ground for flu, where predictions are really hard," said Worobey. "For any given potential pandemic virus, we can actually now say ... this is the age group that you can expect is going to end up in hospital dying and this is the age group who will be protected."
 
The age effect is seen because influenza7 A viruses - the kind considered most likely to cause pandemics - have evolved into two major branches known as type 1 and type 2 flus.
 
Up until 1968 all viruses in circulation belonged to the type 1 branch; between 1968 and 1979, type 2 dominated. Since then, strains belonging to both branches have been in circulation simultaneously8, but with one type tending to dominate each year. "It's like an oak tree that has a trunk that splits into two major branches and 1968 becomes this really clear dividing line," said Worobey.
 
Using vast databases of historical epidemiological data, the scientists tracked the susceptibility of each birth year from 1918 to the present to the different flus in circulation during their lifetime.
 
The findings, published in the journal Science, showed that the strains in circulation early in life - most people have had flu by the age of five - have a profound impact on which types of flu they would be more sensitive to in the future.


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1 wrecks 8d69da0aee97ed3f7157e10ff9dbd4ae     
n.沉船( wreck的名词复数 );(事故中)遭严重毁坏的汽车(或飞机等);(身体或精神上)受到严重损伤的人;状况非常糟糕的车辆(或建筑物等)v.毁坏[毁灭]某物( wreck的第三人称单数 );使(船舶)失事,使遇难,使下沉
参考例句:
  • The shores are strewn with wrecks. 海岸上满布失事船只的残骸。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • My next care was to get together the wrecks of my fortune. 第二件我所关心的事就是集聚破产后的余财。 来自辞典例句
2 seasonal LZ1xE     
adj.季节的,季节性的
参考例句:
  • The town relies on the seasonal tourist industry for jobs.这个城镇依靠季节性旅游业提供就业机会。
  • The hors d'oeuvre is seasonal vegetables.餐前小吃是应时蔬菜。
3 imprint Zc6zO     
n.印痕,痕迹;深刻的印象;vt.压印,牢记
参考例句:
  • That dictionary is published under the Longman imprint.那本词典以朗曼公司的名义出版。
  • Her speech left its imprint on me.她的演讲给我留下了深刻印象。
4 robust FXvx7     
adj.强壮的,强健的,粗野的,需要体力的,浓的
参考例句:
  • She is too tall and robust.她个子太高,身体太壮。
  • China wants to keep growth robust to reduce poverty and avoid job losses,AP commented.美联社评论道,中国希望保持经济强势增长,以减少贫困和失业状况。
5 evolutionary Ctqz7m     
adj.进化的;演化的,演变的;[生]进化论的
参考例句:
  • Life has its own evolutionary process.生命有其自身的进化过程。
  • These are fascinating questions to be resolved by the evolutionary studies of plants.这些十分吸引人的问题将在研究植物进化过程中得以解决。
6 vaccines c9bb57973a82c1e95c7cd0f4988a1ded     
疫苗,痘苗( vaccine的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • His team are at the forefront of scientific research into vaccines. 他的小组处于疫苗科研的最前沿。
  • The vaccines were kept cool in refrigerators. 疫苗放在冰箱中冷藏。
7 influenza J4NyD     
n.流行性感冒,流感
参考例句:
  • They took steps to prevent the spread of influenza.他们采取措施
  • Influenza is an infectious disease.流感是一种传染病。
8 simultaneously 4iBz1o     
adv.同时发生地,同时进行地
参考例句:
  • The radar beam can track a number of targets almost simultaneously.雷达波几乎可以同时追着多个目标。
  • The Windows allow a computer user to execute multiple programs simultaneously.Windows允许计算机用户同时运行多个程序。
TAG标签: immune virus flu
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