论跑步耐力人类远胜其它物种
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2018-04-21 05:35 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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Each year, a small town in Wales holds the Man Versus1 Horse Marathon. It's a 22-mile race between riders on horseback and runners. And, while horses often win, humans will sometimes prevail.
 
威尔士的一个小镇每年都会举办“人马长跑大赛”,由骑马者和跑步者共同参与,赛程约为35公里。虽然骑马者常常胜出,但人类有时也能获胜。
 
So what makes humans such endurance running superstars?
 
The secret weapon is our sweat. We have 2-4 million sweat glands2 all over our body, which means we can run and cool ourselves at the same time. Having no fur is also a huge plus.
 
In contrast, dogs rely on panting to cool down, and other animals, like horses and camels, also sweat, but less effectively. As a result, they overheat faster and must slow down sooner.
 
The mechanics of our running stride also makes us particularly well-suited for endurance running. A human's running gait has two main phases: Aerial when both feet are off the ground and Stance when at least one foot touches the ground.
 
While in the air, gravity pulls us down, which generates a lot of kinetic3 energy. However, the second we hit the ground, we instantly decelerate, losing that kinetic energy in the process.
 
Here's where our special adaptations come in. The tendons and muscles in our legs are very springy. They act like a pogo stick, converting kinetic energy from the aerial phase into elastic4 potential energy, which we can use later.
 
In fact, our IT band can store 15-20 times more elastic energy than a chimpanzee's similar body part, the fascia lata. When it comes time to step off, those springy tendons can turn 50% of that elastic pogo-stick energy back into kinetic, making it easier to propel forward. Without that extra energy, we'd have to exert that much more effort just to take a step.
 
So, why did humans get to be such great endurance runners, anyway?
 
Some anthropologists believe this became important around 2-3 million years ago, when we started hunting and scavenging. Because we couldn't chase down a gazelle like a cheetah5, early humans learned persistence6 hunting. Where they would track prey7 over long distances until the prey either overheated or was driven into a trap.


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1 versus wi7wU     
prep.以…为对手,对;与…相比之下
参考例句:
  • The big match tonight is England versus Spain.今晚的大赛是英格兰对西班牙。
  • The most exciting game was Harvard versus Yale.最富紧张刺激的球赛是哈佛队对耶鲁队。
2 glands 82573e247a54d4ca7619fbc1a5141d80     
n.腺( gland的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • a snake's poison glands 蛇的毒腺
  • the sebaceous glands in the skin 皮脂腺
3 kinetic p2Fxs     
adj.运动的;动力学的
参考例句:
  • There exist many sources of energy both potential and kinetic.存在着许多势能和动能的能源。
  • The kinetic theory of gases is the best known example.气体动力学理论就是最有名的例子。
4 elastic Tjbzq     
n.橡皮圈,松紧带;adj.有弹性的;灵活的
参考例句:
  • Rubber is an elastic material.橡胶是一种弹性材料。
  • These regulations are elastic.这些规定是有弹性的。
5 cheetah 0U0yS     
n.(动物)猎豹
参考例句:
  • The cheetah is generally credited as the world's fastest animal.猎豹被公认是世界上跑得最快的动物。
  • The distribution of the cheetah ranges from Africa to Central Asia.印度豹的足迹遍及从非洲到中亚的广大地区。
6 persistence hSLzh     
n.坚持,持续,存留
参考例句:
  • The persistence of a cough in his daughter puzzled him.他女儿持续的咳嗽把他难住了。
  • He achieved success through dogged persistence.他靠着坚持不懈取得了成功。
7 prey g1czH     
n.被掠食者,牺牲者,掠食;v.捕食,掠夺,折磨
参考例句:
  • Stronger animals prey on weaker ones.弱肉强食。
  • The lion was hunting for its prey.狮子在寻找猎物。
TAG标签: sweat running humans
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