闪电会帮助大气自我净化
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2021-05-25 07:12 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
雷雨时划破长空的闪电有一个你不知道的功能,那就是净化空气,而且还有助于抗击全球气候变暖。新研究发现,闪电会释放大量的“化学清洗剂”,帮助大气自我净化。
 
What is the purpose of lightning? That might sound like a deeply philosophical1 question, but scientists may have shed some more light on the answer with the results of a recently released study.
闪电的功能是什么?听上去可能像是一个深刻的哲学问题,但是科学家最近发布的一项研究结果也许能对这一问题的答案带来一些启示。
 
The new study published at the end of April in Science found that lightning may play a bigger role in global climate change than was previously2 known by the scientific community. "Lightning increases the atmosphere's ability to cleanse3 itself," the researchers wrote in the study.
这项四月末发表在《科学》杂志上的新研究发现,闪电对全球气候变化的影响力可能比科学界先前所了解的更大。研究人员在报告中写道:“闪电会提高大气自我净化的能力。”
 
Many are familiar with the potentially deadly hazards posed by lightning, which is blamed for an average of 43 fatalities4 in the United States each year, based on data from 1989 to 2018. Although the odds5 of being struck are quite low -- 1 in 1,222,000 in a given year and 1 in 15,300 in a lifetime -- many in the weather community have long urged people to take proper precautions to stay safe amid storms, which can frequently trigger lightning, even without turning severe.
许多人对闪电潜在的致命危害很熟悉,基于1989年到2018年的数据,美国每年平均有43人因闪电而丧生。尽管被闪电击中的概率相当低,一年被闪电击中的概率只有122.2万分之一,一辈子的概率只有15300分之一,但是长久以来气象界一直敦促人们在暴雨来临时采取适当的防范措施以保证安全,暴雨经常会引发闪电,即使不是强暴雨也可能出现闪电。
 
However, the researchers recently uncovered a surprising and beneficial impact of lightning.
然而,研究人员最近发现了闪电的一个惊人的有益影响。
 
The Earth is struck by lightning nearly 20 million times each year, and bolts of lightning can travel as much as 10 to 12 miles from a thunderstorm, instantly heating the air to 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit6, according to the National Weather Service.
根据美国国家气象局的数据,地球上每年发生的闪电次数可达近2000万次,雷雨过程中闪电可行进10到12英里(16到19公里),瞬间让空气升温华氏5万度。
 
The study, which included contributions from nine atmospheric7 researchers across a dozen universities and meteorological agencies, was based on an airborne research flight conducted by a NASA DC-8 storm-chasing plane in 2012. The plane was used to examine the top portion of thunderstorm clouds, which are known as anvils8.
这项综合了12所大学和气象机构的9位气象研究员的成果的研究基于2012年美国宇航局DC-8风暴追逐机开展的一项空中飞行实验。这架飞机用于查看雷暴云顶层的砧状云。
 
According to Dr. William Brune, a professor of meteorology and atmospheric sciences at Pennsylvania State University and co-author of the study, researchers initially9 thought there was a problem with the equipment on the plane, which was being used to measure the hydroxyl radicals10 (OH) in the atmosphere until they realized spikes11 they observed corresponded with lightning flashes, ABC News reported.
 
据ABC新闻网报道,该研究的合著者、宾夕法尼亚州立大学的气象学和大气学教授威廉·布龙博士称,研究人员一开始认为飞机上用来测量大气中的羟基自由基的设备有问题,直到他们观察到羟基自由基水平的飙升和闪电有关。
 
Hydroxyl radicals, described as a "chemical scavenger12" by Science Direct, are important chemical compounds found in the atmosphere due to the reactive nature with other organic molecules13.
被Science Direct数据库描述为“化学清洗剂”的羟基自由基是大气中发现的重要化合物,可以和其他有机分子发生反应。
 
Researchers previously understood that lightning could help to clean the atmosphere, but there was no evidence that it could generate compounds like these radicals.
研究人员先前了解到,闪电可以有助于清洁大气,但是没有证据表明闪电可以产生羟基自由基这样的化合物。
 
"No one has seen that much in the atmosphere from natural processes, ever," Brune said.
布龙表示:“从来没有人见过大气自然产生这么多羟基自由基。”
 
As a result, the study estimates that somewhere between 2% and 16% of the oxidizing, or cleaning that happens naturally in the Earth's atmosphere, is done by lightning.
因此,研究估计,地球大气中自然发生的氧化或清洁有2%到16%是由闪电完成的。
 
Why is this significant? The oxidation process helps to reduce chemicals like carbon monoxide and methane14 in the atmosphere. These chemicals, known for being greenhouse gases, have been proven to contribute to rising temperatures associated with climate change.
为什么大气中的氧化很重要?因为氧化过程有助于降低大气中一氧化碳和甲烷等化学物质含量。经证实,这些被称为温室气体的化学物质导致气温升高,而气温升高和气候变化有关。
 
Researchers say that more studies will need to be conducted to verify the degree to which lightning contributes to the fight against global climate change.
研究人员表示,还需要开展更多研究,才能确定闪电对于抗击全球气候变化的贡献程度。


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 philosophical rN5xh     
adj.哲学家的,哲学上的,达观的
参考例句:
  • The teacher couldn't answer the philosophical problem.老师不能解答这个哲学问题。
  • She is very philosophical about her bad luck.她对自己的不幸看得很开。
2 previously bkzzzC     
adv.以前,先前(地)
参考例句:
  • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point.自行车胎在以前损坏过的地方又爆开了。
  • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously.让我岔开一会儿,解释原先发生了什么。
3 cleanse 7VoyT     
vt.使清洁,使纯洁,清洗
参考例句:
  • Health experts are trying to cleanse the air in cities. 卫生专家们正设法净化城市里的空气。
  • Fresh fruit juices can also cleanse your body and reduce dark circles.新鲜果汁同样可以清洁你的身体,并对黑眼圈同样有抑制作用。
4 fatalities d08638a004766194f5b8910963af71d4     
n.恶性事故( fatality的名词复数 );死亡;致命性;命运
参考例句:
  • Several people were injured, but there were no fatalities. 有几个人受伤,但没有人死亡。
  • The accident resulted in fatalities. 那宗意外道致多人死亡。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
6 Fahrenheit hlhx9     
n./adj.华氏温度;华氏温度计(的)
参考例句:
  • He was asked for the boiling point of water in Fahrenheit.他被问到水的沸点是华氏多少度。
  • The thermometer reads 80 degrees Fahrenheit.寒暑表指出华氏80度。
7 atmospheric 6eayR     
adj.大气的,空气的;大气层的;大气所引起的
参考例句:
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
8 anvils bd00446d0777d957f7cdfb2835dbf08a     
n.(铁)砧( anvil的名词复数 );砧骨
参考例句:
9 initially 273xZ     
adv.最初,开始
参考例句:
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.这一禁令首先遭到美国的反对。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.羽毛最初由昆虫的翅瓣演化而来。
10 radicals 5c853925d2a610c29b107b916c89076e     
n.激进分子( radical的名词复数 );根基;基本原理;[数学]根数
参考例句:
  • Some militant leaders want to merge with white radicals. 一些好斗的领导人要和白人中的激进派联合。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The worry is that the radicals will grow more intransigent. 现在人们担忧激进分子会变得更加不妥协。 来自辞典例句
11 spikes jhXzrc     
n.穗( spike的名词复数 );跑鞋;(防滑)鞋钉;尖状物v.加烈酒于( spike的第三人称单数 );偷偷地给某人的饮料加入(更多)酒精( 或药物);把尖状物钉入;打乱某人的计划
参考例句:
  • a row of iron spikes on a wall 墙头的一排尖铁
  • There is a row of spikes on top of the prison wall to prevent the prisoners escaping. 监狱墙头装有一排尖钉,以防犯人逃跑。 来自《简明英汉词典》
12 scavenger LDTyN     
n.以腐尸为食的动物,清扫工
参考例句:
  • He's just fit for a job as scavenger.他只配当个清道夫。
  • He is not a scavenger nor just a moving appetite as some sharks are.它不是食腐动物,也不像有些鲨鱼那样,只知道游来游去满足食欲。
13 molecules 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49     
分子( molecule的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的结构可在电子显微镜下观察到。
  • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反应堆里,大分子裂变为小分子。
14 methane t1Eyx     
n.甲烷,沼气
参考例句:
  • The blast was caused by pockets of methane gas that ignited.爆炸是由数袋甲烷气体着火引起的。
  • Methane may have extraterrestrial significance.甲烷具有星际意义。
上一篇:气候变化类影视文学作品 下一篇:没有了
TAG标签: climate lightning travel
发表评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:点击我更换图片