No change in health gap from 1900 1900年以来,人类健康差异没
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2009-09-11 06:32 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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The link between poverty and early death is as strong today as it was a century ago, a study shows.

调查显示,一个世纪以前早逝和贫穷之间的联系与现在一样强烈。

In 1900, a third of all deaths were in under fives
In 1900, a third of all deaths were in under fives

Despite major changes in the causes of death since the 1900s, the association between deprivation1(剥夺,免职) and mortality remains2 "firmly entrenched(确立的,确定的)", it found.

It is possible that the health effects of poverty have passed through the generations, wrote Dr Ian Gregory in the British Medical Journal.

One public health expert said inequalities may have even got worse.

Dr Gregory, a senior lecturer at the University of Lancaster, looked at census3(户口普查) and mortality data from England and Wales from the 1900s and compared that with data from 2001.

His figures highlight the dramatic improvement seen in early deaths over the past one hundred years.

In the 1900s, 33% of deaths occurred in the under fives and only 13% occurred over the age of 75 but a century later deaths in the under fives account for less than 1% and 65% of deaths now occur in those over 75.

Life expectancy4(预期寿命) has also improved, rising from 46 to 77 in men and 50 to 81 in women.

He also found that the causes of death had changed markedly with respiratory(呼吸的), infectious and parasitic5 diseases(寄生虫病) heading the table in the 1900s compared with cancer, heart disease and stroke in 2001.

Poverty

He then compared the mortality rates in areas of high deprivation in the two time periods.

Although people's experience of poverty changed over the years - in the 1900s it meant not having the bare necessities for existence but a century later poverty is defined as relative to society as a whole - the association between deprivation and high mortality did not change.

This is despite widescale reforms such as the introduction of the NHS and social security in addition to large rises in standards of living and huge advances in medicine, he said.

He added that patterns from the Edwardian era are still strong predictors of ill health today.

"The extent to which the association remained was surprising," he said.

But he said it did not necessarily mean that initiatives to reduce health inequalities had not had an effect.

"The unknown factor is what would have happened if we hadn't done anything - could things have got much much worse - and I suspect they could have done.

Professor Alan Maryon-Davis, President of the Faculty6 of Public Health said to some extent the gap may have got even worse in recent years.

"In the 1900s, it would have been infectious diseases but now it's more about chronic7 diseases(慢性病) linked to lifestyle.

"The health threats may have changed, but the gap between the haves and have-nots is still there, and so too is the difference in mortality.

"This research really drives home the message that the surest way to reduce the health risks of poverty, is to reduce poverty itself."



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1 deprivation e9Uy7     
n.匮乏;丧失;夺去,贫困
参考例句:
  • Many studies make it clear that sleep deprivation is dangerous.多实验都证实了睡眠被剥夺是危险的。
  • Missing the holiday was a great deprivation.错过假日是极大的损失。
2 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
3 census arnz5     
n.(官方的)人口调查,人口普查
参考例句:
  • A census of population is taken every ten years.人口普查每10年进行一次。
  • The census is taken one time every four years in our country.我国每四年一次人口普查。
4 expectancy tlMys     
n.期望,预期,(根据概率统计求得)预期数额
参考例句:
  • Japanese people have a very high life expectancy.日本人的平均寿命非常长。
  • The atomosphere of tense expectancy sobered everyone.这种期望的紧张气氛使每个人变得严肃起来。
5 parasitic 7Lbxx     
adj.寄生的
参考例句:
  • Will global warming mean the spread of tropical parasitic diseases?全球变暖是否意味着热带寄生虫病会蔓延呢?
  • By definition,this way of life is parasitic.从其含义来说,这是种寄生虫的生活方式。
6 faculty HhkzK     
n.才能;学院,系;(学院或系的)全体教学人员
参考例句:
  • He has a great faculty for learning foreign languages.他有学习外语的天赋。
  • He has the faculty of saying the right thing at the right time.他有在恰当的时候说恰当的话的才智。
7 chronic BO9zl     
adj.(疾病)长期未愈的,慢性的;极坏的
参考例句:
  • Famine differs from chronic malnutrition.饥荒不同于慢性营养不良。
  • Chronic poisoning may lead to death from inanition.慢性中毒也可能由虚弱导致死亡。
TAG标签: health death poverty gap
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